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SKILLS & EXPERTISE

FIELDS
DESCRIPTION OF CAPABILITIES
Industrial Electrochemistry

Electrochemical Processes

Electrometallurgy

Electrochemical Remediation

Electrochemical Recycling


Inorganic Electrosynthesis
  • Electrochemical Processes.
  • Electrosynthesis of inorganic chemicals.
  • Electrodialysis.
• Electrowinning and Electrorefining of Metals in Aqueous Solutions

• Electrochemical Treatment of Metallurgical Wastes
  • Electrochemical regeneration of spent acids from pregnant leach solutions (PLS).
  • Electrochemical recovery of metal values from pregnant leach solutions.
  • Electrochemical removal of traces of heavy metals from industrial effluents and acid mine drainage (AMD).
  • Electrochemical recovery of metals values from mining residues, metallurgical and industrial wastes.
  • Electrowinning of iron and iron-rich alloys
Electrochemical Treatment of  Organic Wastes and Liquid Effluents
  • Electrochemical destruction of agricultural wastes (e.g., hog manure).
  • Electrochemical oxidation (e.g., ammonia waters, landfill leachate).
  • Electrocoagulation (e.g., acid mine drainage).
  • Electroflocculation (e.g., black liquors).
Design and Scale-up of Electrolyzers
  • Design and construction of electrolyzers from bench scale to mini-pilot scale.
  • Polymer concrete cells, rectangular cells, three-compartment cells, tubular cells.
Electrodes Materials

Separators and Membrane Materials
Preparation of Novel Electrode Materials
  • Composite electrode materials.
  • Preparation of dimensionally stable electrodes.
  • Preparation of mixed metal oxides anodes (MMO).
  • Preparation of sacrificial electrodes and nonconventional ceramic materials.
Selection and Benchmarking of Industrial Electrode Materials
  • Service life and failure mode analysis of electrodes.
  • Benchmarking of commercial electrode materials.
Selection and Benchmarking of Separators and Membranes
  • Service life and failure mode analysis of ion exchange membranes.
  • Benchmarking of commercial ion exchange membrane materials.
High Temperatures Electrolysis

Electrochemistry in Molten Salts (Fused Salts)
Electrowinning and Electrorefining of Refractory Metals
  • Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Re
  • Lanthanides and rare earth elements (REEs) & Mischmetal
  • Inert anodes for electrowinning lithium, magnesium, and aluminum.
Electrowinning of Alkali Metals (Lithium and Sodium)
  • Electrocoating of metallic substrates in molten salts.
Electrochemical Measurements in Molten Salt Electrolytes
  • Steady state and transient voltammetry.
  • Electrical conductivity and transport properties.
  • Fabrication of reference electrodes.
  • Measurement of dissolved oxygen.
Hydrometallurgy
  • Acid leaching of ores and concentrates using counter-current cascade reactors.
  • Alkaline or caustic leaching or ores and concentrates using counter-current cascade reactors.
  • Hydrometallurgical processes for the recovery of vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten.
Materials Selection

Materials Processing
Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials
  • Refractory metals and their alloys (e.g., Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W).
  • Precious and noble metals (e.g.,Cu, Ag, Au).
  • Platinum Group Metals (e.g.,Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt).
  • Advanced ceramics and high temperature refractories.
  • Corrosion resistant materials and coatings towards molten caustic alkali-metal hydroxides and carbonates (e.g., NaOH, KOH, LiOH).
  • Corrosion resistant materials and coatings towards strong mineral acids and their mixtures (e.g., HF, HCl, H2SO4, HNO3).
  • Corrosion resistant materials and coatings towards mixtures of iodine-hydroiodic acid and bromine and hydrobromic acid (e.g., HI-I2, HBr-Br2,).
Surface Finishing of Refractory Metals
  • Chemical and electrolytic polishing of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten.
High Temperature Chemistry

Pyrometallurgy and Pyrochemistry

Molten Slags and Liquid Metals
• Design and Construction of High Temperature Furnaces
  • Design and construction of thermal insulation, selection of power supply and instrumentation.
  • Electrothermal processes.
  • Transfered and submerged DC/AC electric arc furnaces (EAF, SAF).
  • Aluminothermic and carbothermic reduction.
  • Ferroalloys, and electrofused ceramics.
  • Selection of refractories and castables.
  • Heat transfer and electrical calculations.
Measurement of Physical Properties of Molten Slags, Salts and Ionic Melts
  • Density, viscosity, surface tension, wetting and contact angles.
  • Electrical conductivity, vapor pressure, and specific heat capacity.
Pyroprocessing and Pyrometallurgy
  • Metallothermic reduction of reactive and refractory metal oxides (e.g., aluminothermic, calciothermic).
  • Purification and handling of liquid alkali metals (lithium, sodium and potassium).
  • Pyrometallurgical processes for the recovery of vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and rare earths.
  • Ferroalloys production (Ferro-titanium, ferro-silicon, ferro-niobium).
Carbo-chlorination of Titanium and Niobium (Columbium) rich Feedstocks
  • Design of bench and pilot scale chlorinator (i.e., fluidized bed, feeder, cyclones and settling chambers).
  • Low temperature carbo-chlorination of titanium oxycarbides (TiOCs) and oxynitrides (TiONs).
  • Carbo-chlorination of ferroniobium (FeNb) and ferrotantalumniobium (FeTaNb).
  • Monitoring of phosgene (COCl2) concentrations in off-gases and refractory metal chlorides.
  • Reduction of carryover by various techniques (e.g., quenching, free-board expansion, cyclones).
Sourcing of Strategic Raw Materials and Metals

Applied Mineralogy and Petrography
Geological Exploration and Mining Prospection
  • Sourcing of strategic metals (lithium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, rare earths and thorium).
  • Abandonned or active mine sites auditing with team of professional geologists and mining engineers.
  • Site auditing and due diligence
Mineral Dressing Techniques and Ore Beneficiation
  • Crushing and grinding.
  • Gravity separation (heavy media, jigs, hydrocyclones, spirals).
  • Magnetic and electrostatic separation.
  • Froth flotation.
Applied Mineralogy and Petrography
  • Practical mineral identification techniques and optical crystallography (orthoscopic and conoscopic microscopy)
  • Polarizing microscopy and thin sections (minerals, rocks, cements, refractories)
  • Opaque minerals microscopy and ores metallography
  • Microchemical analysis
Radioactivity in the  Mining and Metallurgical Industries
  • Radioactivity from rare earths oxides (REOs) concentrates (monazite, bastnaesite, xenotime and loparite).
  • NORM and TENORM in the mining, mineral processing and metallurgical industries.
Project Management
  • Project Management.
  • Planning.
  • Plant Auditing and Due Diligence.
  • Capital Costs (CAPEX) & Operating Costs (OPEX) estimates.
  • Preliminary financial evaluation (NPV, IRR, ROI, payback), sensitivity and risk analysis.
  • Business Plan.
  • Control Plan.
Technical Writing

On-site Training
  • Reference handbooks.
  • Securing Intellectual property and patents.
  • Professional reports and market analysis.

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Keywords: industrial electrochemistry, electrochemical engineering, electrochemical processes, electrothermal processes, transfered and submerged electric arc furnaces, aluminothermic and carbothermic reduction, ferroalloys, electrofused ceramics, materials engineering, materials science, materials data, properties of materials properties, aqueous electrolytes, molten salts, fused salts, electrolysis, electrode kinetics, corrosion science, electrodeposition, electrowinning, electrorefining, electrocatalysis, electrooxidation, electrocoagulation, electrofloculation, electrodes, cathodes, inert anodes, dimensionally stable electrodes, chlorine evolution, oxygen evolution, mixed metal oxides (MMO), activated titanium anodes, oxide coated titanium anodes, lead anodes, refractory metals, molten slags, liquid metals,lithium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, rare earth elements, thorium, uranium, applied mineralogy and petrography, extractive metallurgy, pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, electrometallurgy, natural radioactivity, recycling, mining residues, metallurgical wastes, industrial wastes.