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PATENTS

For a comprehensive list of other publications by Dr. François Cardarelli please visit the following link [PUBLICATIONS].

PROCES IV - CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR RECOVERING VANADIUM AND IRON VALUES FROM VANADIFEROUS TITANOMAGNETITE - VANADIUMCORP-ELECTROCHEM PROCESS TECHNOLOGY (VEPT)

 ***PATENT SOLD TO VANADIUMCORP***

PCT of the International Patent Application WO 2018/152628 (A1) [PDF file (4.54 MB)] entitled - METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR RECOVERING VANADIUM AND IRON VALUES FROM VANADIFEROUS TITANOMAGNETITE AND VANADIFEROUS FEEDSTOCKS. - (Inventor: François CARDARELLI) This novel chemical process addresses the recovery of vanadium, iron, titanium and silica values from a plethora of vanadiferous feedstocks such as vanadiferous titanomagnetite, iron ores and concentrates: magnetite and hematite, vanadium containing industrial wastes such as BOF-slags and other industrial by-products also containing vanadium. The process broadly comprises digesting the vanadiferous feedstocks into concentrated sulfuric acid owing to the exothermic sulfation reaction that allows to operate quasi-autogeneously while producing a sulfation cake. The dissolution of the sulfation cake after separating the  insoluble solids yields a concentrated pregnant solution. After reducing electrochemically the pregnant solution, the reduced pregnant solution is then subjeced to to chilling and crystallization to yield clean crystals of copperas (ferrous sulfate heptahydrate: FeSO4.7H2O), and produces an iron depleted solution. The process further comprises removing titanium as titanium hydrolyzate [TiO(OH)2] by hydrolysis from the iron depleted solution thereby producing a vanadium-bearing pregnant solution. The further concentration by evaporation and then a sequence of chilling and crystallization yields vanadyl sulfate pentahydrate crystals [VOSO4.5H2O] to be purified further to prepare various vanadium chemicals such as vanadium pentoxide both to be used as precursors for the preparation of vanadium electrolyte (VE).

ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT) ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT) ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT) ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT) ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. -VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT)ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC.
Canadian Patent Application
CA 3,032,329 A1
South African Patent Application
ZA 2019/00743
Indian Patent Application
IN 2019/17004662
US Patent
US 10,947,630 B2
(Granted: March 16, 2021)
Australian Patent Application
AU 2018/225,820
European Patent Application
EP 18757453
  March
Patent_WO_2018_152628_A1 - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT) Patent WO_2018_152628_A1 - VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT)

PROCESS III - RECYCLING RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM PHOSPHORS AND FLUORESCENT LAMPS

PCT of the International Patent Application WO 2014/071510 (A1) [PDF file (3 MB)] entitled PROCESS FOR RECOVERING RARE EARTH OXIDES FROM PHOSPHORS, FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND LIGHT BULBS, CATHODE RAY TUBES AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL WASTES. (Inventor: Francois CARDARELLI)  This novel process addresses the recovery of rare earths oxides from phosphor dusts, fluorescent lamps and light bulbs, cathode ray tubes and other industrial wastes containing rare earths elements in the form of halophosphates, tri-band phosphors and other fluorescent materials. The process consists: (1) to submit the wastes or spent materials to either caustic fusion or hot alkaline leaching; (2) to perform the hot alkaline leaching of the solidified melt to produce insoluble solid residues and a barren alkaline leaching solution; (3) To recover the tri-basic sodium phosphate by crystallization from the barren solution;(4) to oven-dry or calcine the insoluble solid residues; (5) to perform the hot acid leaching of the oven-dried or calcined solids; (6) to recover the cerium (IV) oxide from insoluble solids; (7) to reduce the cerium-free solution, precipitate, acid leach, precipitate, calcine and recover the europium (III) oxide; (8) to precipitate the remaining rare earths as oxalates; (9) to calcine the rare earths oxalates and dissolve the rare earths oxides in acid; (10) to separate the yttrium, gadolinium, terbium and erbium by ion exchange (IX) or solvent extraction (SX); (11) to precipitate and calcine the pure oxalates to yield pure yttrium (III) oxide, gadolinium (III) oxide, terbium (III, IV) oxides, and erbium (III) oxide; (12) Finally, to regenerate and recycle the spent alkaline solution after causticizing with calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide; Canadian Patent CA 2,878,486 C, February 9th, 2016  [PDF file (1.84 MB)].
Patent_WO_2014_071510_A1 Patent WO_2014_071510_A1

PROCESS II - EXTRACTING TANTALUM AND NIOBIUM FROM ORES AND CONCENTRATES

PCT of the International Patent Application WO 2013/040694 (A1) [PDF file (3 MB)] entitled - PROCESS FOR UPGRADING TANTALUM AND NIOBIUM ORES AND CONCENTRATES WITH THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE AND RARE EARTH OXIDES. (Inventor: Francois CARDARELLI) - Process for upgrading tantalum and niobium ores and concentrates is described herein. The process comprising: a) submitting the ore or concentrate to a caustic fusion or an alkali fusion using a melt comprising at least one salt of an alkali metal to produce a solidified melt; b) submitting the solidified melt to an alkaline leaching step to produce an alkaline pregnant leaching solution comprising manganese values; c) recovering the manganese values from the alkaline pregnant leaching solution to produce a substantially manganese-free leach solution; and d) precipitating tantalum and niobium as an insoluble sodium niobiate and tantalate from the manganese-free leach solution. Acid leaching the sodium niobiate and tantalate to yield a mixture of pure niobium and tantalum oxides. The rare earth oxides are recovered from the insoluble solid residues obtained during alkaline leaching; Canadian Patent CA 2,849,787 C, April 21st, 2015 [PDF file (3.30 MB)].
WO 2013_040694_A1 WO_2013_040694_A1

PROCESS I - ELECTROWINNING IRON AND REGENERATING SULFURIC ACID FROM COPPERAS AND FERROUS SULFATE SOLUTIONS [ZERO-CARBON IRON MAKING FerWIN™ PROCESS]

PCT of the International Patent Application WO 2009/124393 (A1) [PDF file (2 MB)] entitled - ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES, AND PICKLING LIQUORS. (Inventor: Francois CARDARELLI) - The patent describes a novel electrochemical technology called the FerWIN Process for recovering metallic iron and iron-rich alloys and concurrently regenerating sulfuric acid from iron-rich sulfate wastes, such as ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O), also called copperas in the trade, currently by-produced from the titanium white pigment industry, spent pickling liquors (SPLs) originating from iron and steel making plants, and finally pregnant leach solutions (PLS) generated during the acid leaching of ores and concentrates at various minerals and metals processing plants.
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS CANADIAN PATENT - CA 2,717,887 C [Granted on June 14th, 2016] - ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS.
[PDF file (1.82 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS EUROPEAN PATENT - EP 2268852 B1 [Granted on November 8th, 2018] - ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS.
[PDF file (0.52 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS US PATENT APPLICATION - US 2011/00089045 A1
[Published on April 21st, 2011] -
ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS.
[PDF file (1.3 MB)
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS CHINESE PATENT - CN 102084034 B [Granted on December 12th, 2012] - 回收金属铁和硫酸有用材料的电化学方法
[PDF file (1.44 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS INDIAN PATENT - IN 294,372 [Granted on March 15th, 2018]

ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS JAPANESE PATENT - JP 5469157 B2 [Granted on February 7th, 2014] - 鉄リッチ硫酸塩廃棄物、採鉱残留物、および酸洗い液から金属鉄および硫酸の有価分を回収するための電気化学プロセス
[PDF file (1.04 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS BRAZILIAN PATENT - BRPI 0911653 B  [Granted on December 18, 2019] - PROCESSO ELETROQUÍMICO PARA A RECUPERAÇÃO DE VALORES DE FERRO METÁLICO E DE ÁCIDO SULFÚRICO A PARTIR DE RESÍDUOS DE SULFATO RICOS EM FERRO, RESÍDUOS DE MINERAÇÃO E LÍQUIDOS DE DECAPAGEM. [PDF file (0.88 MB)] ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS SOUTH AFRICAN PATENT - ZA 2010/07214 B [Granted on August 31st, 2011] - ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS. ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS AUSTRALIAN PATENT APPLICATION - AU 2009/235914 [Published]- ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS. 
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS FRENCH PATENT - [Granted on May 14th, 2019] PROCÉDÉ ÉLECTROCHIMIQUE DE RÉCUPÉRATION DE VALEURS DE FER MÉTALLIQUE ET D ACIDE SULFURIQUE À PARTIR DE DÉCHETS SULFATÉS RICHES EN FER, DE RÉSIDUS D EXPLOITATION ET DE LESSIVES DE DÉCAPAGE.
[PDF file (0.57 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS BRITISH PATENT - [Granted on May 14th, 2019] ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALLIC IRON AND SULFURIC ACID VALUES FROM IRON-RICH SULFATE WASTES, MINING RESIDUES AND PICKLING LIQUORS.  [PDF file (0.57 MB)] ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS GERMAN PATENT - [Granted on May 14th, 2019] ELEKTROCHEMISCHES VERFAHREN ZUR RÜCKGEWINNUNG METALLISCHEN EISENS UND SCHWEFELSÄUREWERTE AUS EISENREICHEN SCHWEFELABFÄLLEN, ABBAURESTSTOFFEN UND ALTBEIZLÖSUNGEN [PDF file (0.57 MB)]

ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS ITALIAN PATENT - [Granted on May 14th, 2019] PROCESSO ELETTROCHIMICO PER IL RECUPERO DI VALORI DI FERRO METALLICO E ACIDO SOLFORICO DA RIFIUTI DI SOLFATO RICCO DI FERRO, RESIDUI DI ATTIVITÀ MINERARIA E LIQUIDI DI DECAPAGGIO.
[PDF file (0.57 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS BELGIAN PATENT - [Granted on May 14th, 2019] PROCÉDÉ ÉLECTROCHIMIQUE DE RÉCUPÉRATION DE VALEURS DE FER MÉTALLIQUE ET D'ACIDE SULFURIQUE À PARTIR DE DÉCHETS SULFATÉS RICHES EN FER, DE RÉSIDUS D EXPLOITATION ET DE LESSIVES DE DÉCAPAGE.
[PDF file (0.57 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS SPANISH PATENT - ES 2712722 T3 [Granted on May 14th, 2019] PROCEDIMIENTO ELECTROQUÍMICO PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN DE VALORES DE HIERRO METÁLICO Y ÁCIDO SULFÚRICO A PARTIR DE DESECHOS DE SULFATOS RICOS EN HIERRO, RESIDUOS DE MINERÍA Y LICORES DECAPANTES. [PDF file (1.03 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS

NORVEGIAN PATENT - NO 2268852 [Granted on May 14th, 2019] EN ELEKTROKJEMISK PROSESS FOR GJENVINNING AV METALLISK JERN ELLER EN JERNRIK LEGERING, OKSYGEN OG SVOVELSYRE FRA EN JERNRIK METALLSULFATLØSNING, IDET NEVNTEPROSESS.

[PDF file (0.58 MB)]

ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS SWEDISH PATENT - SE 2268852 T3 [Granted on May 14th, 2019] ELEKTROKEMISK PROCESS FÖR UTVINNING AV METALLISKT JÄRN OCH SVAVELSYRAVÄRDEN FRÅN JÄRNRIKT SULFATAVFALL, GRUVRESTER OCH BETNINGSLOCKO.
[PDF file (0.205 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS FINNISH PATENT - FI 2268852 [Granted on May 14th, 2019] SÄHKÖKEMIALLINEN PROSESSI ARVOKKAIDEN RAUTAMETALLI- JA RIKKIHAPPOJÄÄMIEN TALTEENOTTOON RUNSASRAUTAISISTA SULFAATTIJÄTTEISTÄ, KAIVOSTOIMINNAN JÄTTEISTÄ JA PEITTAUSNESTEISTÄ. [PDF file (0.21 MB)]
ELECTROWINNING OF IRON FROM FERROUS SULFATE & COPPERAS

SLOVENIAN PATENT - SI 2268852 T1 [Granted on May 14th, 2019] ELEKTROKEMIČNI POSTOPEK ZA PRIDOBIVANJE VREDNOSTI KOVINSKEGA ŽELEZA IN ŽVEPLOVE KISLINE IZ ODPADNIH ŽVEPLOVIH ODPADKOV, RUDARSKIH OSTANKOV IN LUŠČENJA.

[PDF file (0.05 MB)]





WO_2009_124393_A1 WO_2009_124393_A1

COMPOSITE METALLIC MATERIALS

PCT International Patent Application WO 2008/017156 A1 [PDF file (3 MB)] - entitled - COMPOSITE METALLIC MATERIALS USES THEREOF AND PROCESS FOR MAKING THE SAME. (Inventor: Francois CARDARELLI) - A lightweight, high strength and corrosion resistant composite metallic material is disclosed herein. The composite metallic material typically comprises a high-to-weight ratio, low density core material; and a corrosion resistant protective refractory metal layer. The method for making the composite metallic material comprises the steps of surface activating the core material and forming a refractory metal on the surface of the surface activated core material by physical, chemical or electrochemical processes. Such a composite material is suitable for making biomaterials, corrosion resistant equipment and industrial electrodes.
WO_2008_017156_A1 WO_2008_017156_A1

PROFESSIONAL REFERENCE HANDBOOKS

Materials Handbook. A Concise Desktop Reference
Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures
MATERIALS HANDBOOK. - A Concise Desktop Reference. THIRD EDITION

by Francois CARDARELLI

SPRINGER International Publishing, London
CXXXII, 2254 pages and 173 black and white figures, 2 illustrations in color (2018) in two volumes


ISBN 978-3-319-38923-3
    Hardcover
ISBN
978-3-319-38925-7         eBook
ISBN
978-3-030-13247-7     Softcover

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-38925-7

Library of Congress Cataloging Number:
2018940467

The unique and practical Materials Handbook (third edition) provides quick and easy access to the physical and chemical properties of very many classes of materials. Its coverage has been expanded to include whole new families of materials such as minor metals, ferroalloys, nuclear materials, food, natural oils, fats, resins, and waxes. Many of the existing families - notably the metals, gases, liquids, minerals, rocks, soils, polymers, and fuels - are broadened and refined with new material and up-to-date information. Several of the larger tables of data are expanded and new ones added. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of common industrial materials in each class. After a chapter introducing some general properties of materials, each of twenty classes of materials receives attention in its own chapter. The health and safety issues connected with the use and handling of industrial materials are included.

Detailed appendices provide additional information on subjects as diverse as astronomical data, crystallography, spectroscopy, thermochemical data, analytical chemistry, corrosion resistance, and economic data for industrial and hazardous materials. Specific further reading sections and a general bibliography round out this comprehensive guide. The index and tabular format of the book makes light work of extracting what the reader needs to know from the wealth of factual information within these covers.

François Cardarelli has spent many years compiling and editing materials data. His professional expertise and experience combine to make this handbook an indispensable reference tool for scientists, chemists, geologists and engineers working in numerous fields ranging from chemical to nuclear engineering. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of common industrial materials in each class. After a chapter introducing some general properties of materials, materials are classified as follows:
 

CONTENT: Front Matter and Table of Content (ToC) [PDF file (1.39 MB)] - Properties of Materials.- Ferrous Metals and Their Alloys (Pig iron and steels. - Nickel and nickel alloys. - Cobalt and cobalt alloys. - Manganese and manganese alloys). - Ferroalloys. - Common Nonferrous Metals (Aluminum and aluminum alloys. - Copper and copper alloys. - Zinc and zinc alloys. - Lead and lead alloys - Tin and tin alloys). - Minor Metals (Cadmium. - Mercury. - Gallium. - Indium. - Thallium. - Arsenic. - Antimony. - Bismuth. - Selenium. - Tellurium.) - Less Common Nonferrous Metals (Alkali-metals, Alkaline-earth metals). - Refractory and reactive metals (Titanium and titanium alloys, Zirconium and zirconium alloys, Hafnium and hafnium alloys, Vanadium and vanadium alloys, Niobium and niobium alloys, Tantalum and tantalum alloys, Chromium and chromium alloys, Molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, Tungsten and tungsten alloys, Rhenium and rhenium alloys) - Noble and precious metals (Silver and Gold). - Platinum Group Metals (PGMs, Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum). - Rare Earths and Lanthanides. - Actinides (Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium) .- Semiconductors.- Superconductors.- Magnetic Materials.- Insulators and Dielectrics.- Miscellaneous Electrical Materials [PDF file (1.85 MB)]. - Ceramics, Refractories and Glasses.- Polymers and Elastomers.- Minerals, Ores and Gemstones.- Rocks and Meteorites.- Soils and Fertilizers.- Cements, Concrete, Building Stones and Construction Materials.- Timbers and Woods.- Fuels, Propellants and Explosives.- Nuclear Materials. - Composite Materials.- Gases.- Liquids. - Foods, Oils, Resins & Waxes. - Materials Occupational Health & Safety.  - Appendices. - Bibliography. - Index. [PDF file (6.25 MB)];

For more details or purchase see: www.springer.com or or any bookstore near your location such as www.amazon.ca or www.amazon.com or www.amazon.fr or www.amazon.it or www.amazon.es or www.amazon.co.uk or www.amazon.de or www.amazon.co.jp or www.amazon.in

The entire e-book content is also available online through SpringerLink at the following URL:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-319-38925-7
ENCYCLOPAEDIA of SCIENTIFIC UNITS, WEIGHTS and MEASURES. Their SI equivalences and origins.

by Francois CARDARELLI

SPRINGER London, New York, Heidelberg, xxiv, 848 pages (2005)

ISBN 1-85233-682-X    Hardcover.
ISBN 1-60119-016-6           eBook

Library of Congress Cataloging No. QC94.C295 2003


With more than 5,000 units and 35,000 conversion factors The Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures covers the full gamut of science, technology and medicine, and deals with US customary, Imperial British, conventional metric, MTS, MKpS, MKSA, CGS (esu, emu and Gaussian), FPS, IPS, atomic units (au), historic and SI units.

The book allows to convert the huge variety of units from all over the world in every period of recorded history into units of the SI. Featuring: * An A - Z of conversion tables for over 5,000 units of measurements. * Tables of units arranged according to the physical quantities (e.g., mass, length, area, volume, density, viscosity, etc.). * Tables of mathematical and fundamental constants. * Listings of professional societies, and national standardization bodies for easy reference. * An extensive bibliography detailing further reading on the multifarious aspects of measurement and its units.

This huge work is simply a "must have" for any reference library frequented by scientists, engineers, and students of any discipline or by those with historical interests in units of measurement such as historians and archaeologists.


CONTENTS [Detailed Table of Content & List of Tables PDF file (88 KB)]: - Introduction.- The International System of Units (SI). - Other Systems (UK, US, FPS, MTS, MKpS, CGS, IEUS, atomic units, ancient times systems, and obsolete national systems). - Conversion Tables. - Mathematical and Fundamental Constants. - Appendices. - Bibliography.

For more details or purchase see: www.springer.com or any bookstore near your location such as www.amazon.ca or www.amazon.com or www.amazon.fr or www.amazon.co.uk or www.amazon.de or www.amazon.co.jp electronic version available ON-LINE at Knovel.com

BILINGUAL (ENGLISH/FRANÇAIS) TECHNICAL BROCHURES

ELECTR ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. - ANODES MMO
ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC.
[1] ELECTROWINNING OF METALLIC IRON FROM IRON SULFATE(S)
[PDF file (7.4 MB)]
[2] VANADIUM ELECTROLYTE PRODUCTION AND RECYCLING
[PDF file (6.7 MB)]
[3] MIXED METAL OXIDES (MMO) ANODES
[PDF file (4.5 MB)]
ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC. ELECTROCHEM TECHNOLOGIES & MATERIALS INC.RECYCLING RARE EARTH - BROCHURE
[4] VANADIUMCORP-ELECTROCHEM PROCESS TECHNOLOGY (VEPT)
[PDF file (6.7 MB)]
[5] CESIUM TUNGSTATE FOR HEAVY MINERALS SEPARATION
[PDF file (7.4 MB)]
[6] RECYCLING OF RARE EARTH from FLUORESCENT LAMPS
[PDF file (5.5 MB)]


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Keywords: industrial electrochemistry, electrochemical engineering, electrochemical processes, electrothermal processes, transfered and submerged electric arc furnaces, aluminothermic and carbothermic reduction, ferroalloys, electrofused ceramics, materials engineering, materials science, materials data, properties of materials properties, aqueous electrolytes, molten salts, fused salts, electrolysis, electrode kinetics, corrosion science, electrodeposition, electrowinning, electrorefining, electrocatalysis, electrooxidation, electrocoagulation, electrofloculation, electrodes, cathodes, inert anodes, dimensionally stable electrodes, chlorine evolution, oxygen evolution, mixed metal oxides (MMO), activated titanium anodes, oxide coated titanium anodes, lead anodes, refractory metals, molten slags, liquid metals,lithium, cesium tungstate, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, vanadium pentoxide, vanadyl sulfate, ammonium polyvanadate, sodium metavanadate, vanadium redox battery electrolyte, vanadium electrolyte production, Vanalyte, Super Vanalyte™, The FerWIN Process™, VanadiumCorp-Electrochem Processing Technology (VEPT), niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, rare earth elements, recycling of rare earths, recycling of rare earths, thorium, uranium, applied mineralogy and petrography, extractive metallurgy, pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, electrometallurgy, natural radioactivity, recycling, mining residues, metallurgical wastes, industrial wastes.